What is Enteral Nutrition? Products and Complications

enteral nutrition
Enteral Nutrition (Scuba Nutrition)

Enteral nutrition, medically tube feeding is expressed as. In other words, it refers to feeding with the help of a tube that goes through the mouth, stomach or directly into the small intestine. It provides the intake of protein, fat, carbohydrates and vitamins that the body cannot take. This type of nutrition is in the medical language "gastrointestinal (GI) nutritionAlso known as ".

What is Enteral Nutrition?

It is a nutritional therapy applied to people who cannot meet their macronutrient needs orally due to certain disorders. Enteral nutrition routes The main reason for treatment with this medicine is that the mouth, esophagus, stomach and intestines do not work properly. However, in people with serious intestinal disorders (such as intestinal obstruction, decreased blood flow in the intestines) enteral therapy may not benefit.

enteral tube feeding
Enteral Nutrition (Scuba Nutrition)

This type of nutrition is usually a short- to medium-term solution. In addition, most of the time, at the end of the treatment, it is returned to normal nutrition. But it is also quite different from normal diet.

  • Activities such as smell, taste, chewing and swallowing that form the eating mechanisms do not occur.
  • There is a variety of foods that are taken with a normal diet.
  • In enteral foods Formulas are usually fixed and do not change.
  • It is involuntary compared to normal feeding.
  • Complications may occur in enteral nutrition.

When to Switch to Enteral Nutrition?

It is seen in some health problems such as malnutrition, weight loss, where nutritional needs are not met. More common causes are diseases that reduce energy or reduce the desire to eat. In addition, cancer types that make it difficult to eat and adequate nutrition due to stress are also counted.is working. As a result of these reasons, the transition to enteral nutrition can be done.

Enteral Nutrition Products Classification

  • Standard products
  • fibrous products
  • hypercaloric products
  • diabetic products
  • Products containing glutamine
  • modular products
  • Disease specific products
  • Glutamine-containing products

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Enteral Nutrition Tubes

  • The nasogastric tube (NGT) begins in the nose and ends in the stomach. 
  • The orogastric tube (OGT) begins in the mouth and ends in the stomach.
  • The nasoenteric tube begins in the nose and ends in the intestines.
  • The gastrostomy tube is inserted through the abdominal skin directly into the stomach.
  • The jejunostomy tube is inserted through the abdominal skin directly into the intestines.
  • The oroenteric tube begins in the mouth and ends in the intestines.

Enteral Feeding Complications

Complications may occur in patients with feeding tubes as a result of incorrect placement or dislocation of the tube, fluid imbalance in the enteral feeding pathways, and infection of the inserted site. In order to identify problems, the doctor evaluates the patient before tube feeding. Complications from enteral feeding are usually:

  • Constipation
  • Dehydration
  • Infection in the abdomen
  • Shortness of breath
  • Diarrhea
  • Skin problems

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Last updated September 7, 2021